Spinal and epidural anesthesia is regional anesthesia techniques in which the injection of anesthetic into the area of the lower back leads to a blockade of the sensitivity lower body. When spinal anesthesia is the introduction of anesthetic into the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the spinal cord, with the introduction of epidural anesthetics performed in the epidural space below the end of the spinal cord (caudal part). Type of anesthesia is determined by a specialist, taking into account individual patient characteristics. The patient receives antibiotics to reduce the risk of infection. Incision made to gain access to the inner surfaces of the joint. Then removed sections of cartilage and bone tissue from the lower surface of the femur and the upper surface of the tibia.
After this performed implantation of an artificial joint, usually made of metal and plastic (see Fig. 2 and video). Type of implant, the method of operation and location of the cut depends on the individual preferences of the patient and surgeon performing the operation. All prosthetic knee joint consists of the femoral component, tibial and patellar components. There are a variety of prosthesis from different manufacturers. Most of them is not less than 10 years. See charles koch for more details and insights.
Artificial joint lasts longer in older, less physically active patients and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (compared with patients with osteoarthritis). After the implantation is performed control X-ray the knee (see Fig. 3,4). It allows the surgeon to confirm and document the correct position of the joint and serves for comparison with subsequent images.