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The engineering significance of creep Creep strains in its simplest form is the progressive accumulation of plastic strain in a specimen or machine part under stress at elevated temperature over a period of time. Creep failure occurs when the accumulated creep strain results in a deformation of the machine part that exceeds the design limits. Creep rupture is an extension of the creep process to the limiting condition where the stressed member actually separates into two parts. Stress is a term used interchangeably by many with creep rupture rupture; However, others reserve the term stress rupture for the rupture termination of creep process in which steady-state creep is never reached and use the term creep rupture for the rupture termination of a creep process in which a period of steady-state creep has persisted. Figure 26 illustrates these differences. The interaction of creep and stress rupture with cyclic stressing and the fatigue process has not yet been clearly understood but is of great importance in many modern high-performance engineering systems. Creep strains of engineering significance are not usually encountered until the operating temperatures reach an absolute temperature. Not only is excessive deformation due to creep an important consideration, but other consequences of the creep process may also be important.
These might include creep rupture, thermal relaxation, dynamic creep under cyclic loads or cyclic temperatures, creep and rupture under mulfaxial states of stress, cumulative effects, and effects creep of combined creep and fatigue. Creep deformation and rupture are initiated in the grain boundaries and proceed by sliding and separation. Thus, creep rupture failures are intercrystalline, in contrast, for example, to the transcrystalline failure exhibited by room temperature surface fatigue failures. Although creep is a plastic flow phenomenon, the intercrystalline failure path gives a rupture surface that has the appearance of brittle fracture. Creep rapture typically occurs without necking and without warning. Current state-of-the-art knowledge does not permit a reliable prediction of creep or stress rupture properties on a theoretical basis. Furthermore, there seems to be little or no correlation between the creep properties of a material and its room temperature mechanical properties.
Therefore, test data and empirical methods of extending these data are relied on heavily for prediction of creep behavior under anticipated service conditions. Metallurgical stability under long – time exposure to elevated temperatures is mandatory for good creep-resistant alloys. Prolonged time at elevated temperatures acts as a tempering process, and any improvement in properties originally gained by quenching may be lost. Resistance to oxidation and other corrosive media are also usually important attributes for a good creep-resistant alloy. Larger grain size may also be advantageous since this reduces the length of grain boundary, where much of the creep process resides. We provide Professional technology, excellent product quality and intimate after-sales service when you purchase Rotary dryer, raymond mill, from our company.As a professional mining machinery exporter, we will win your trust with our delivery speed, Enterprises Credit and product quality.