An example. Avionics typical intercontinental ballistic missile has about 300 thousand electronic devices and components. In order for such a missile is normally surged 9 times out of 10, each part must have its reliability (probability at a specified time) at least 99.99996%. In other words, any detail “has the right to” break down one time for every 2.5 million (two and a half million!) launches. For more specific information, check out Mashable. Automating the assembly of electronic equipment, the need to drastically reduce its size and weight, improve reliability – these were all challenges that can not be resolved within the traditional technology. Scientists and engineers had to break with tradition and onerous in the first place to send in a fundamentally new way of development of electronic technology. True, it happened, not once. The technological revolution in Electronics and electronic equipment is not finished yet, but we can talk about it a great victory.
Over the past few years in the design and production of electronic equipment and electronic devices no time there were new directions, new ideas and methods. Many of them are “settled” in the industry and still used quite widely. And at the same time, each new method of creating a base for further advances, and the there was only a milestone on the path of progress. One of these milestones – printed circuit board. He allowed one hit to lay a connecting chain unit, opened a real opportunity to automate assembly processes, but, unfortunately, not resolved the remaining issues. Another important milestone – the modular design. Its essence is that a variety of radio-electronic devices collected from individual standard-size cells – modules. Each of them performs certain functions (oscillator, amplifier, flip-flop, etc.) and, in turn, consists of several tightly “packed” of radio parts. The modular design dramatically (5-10 times) increased packing density electronic equipment. The word “module” soon appeared the prefix “micro” – the efforts of experts on electronic ‘technology have been created subminiature (often saying “Microminiature”) lamps, transformers, switches, capacitors and other components were found new ways to build the modules.
Gradually, the density reached 10-20 designs det./sm3 and thus exceeded the density of the classical – Attachments – installation of conventional electronic components is about 100 times! But today, a figure that does not seem to us very large. The fact that the semiconductor crystal can not replace just one bulb and a lamp unit with many different parts. Such a crystal could be the basis for extremely reliable and subminiature devices entirely new type, where the functions of electronic devices would perform a small group of individual molecules. This At first glance a fantastic line of electronic equipment already has the first real success. Among them, solid, or, as they are called, integrated circuits, direct descendants of semiconductor diodes and transistors. High level of technology was the key to creating a single semiconductor crystal entire electronic components – solid-state circuits. Can be placed in a small crystal dozens of transitions, which act as diodes, transistors, capacitors. A similar method, changing the conductivity of the material, create a resistor – the most common elements of the schemes. Many resistors “own body” connect other parts, forming a complex electrical circuits. Where necessary connection “shorts” in the crystal pressed into very thin wire or sprayed onto the strip of metal.